Chemical analyses of organic residues in pottery have provided evidence for pottery function and food resource. However, in hunter-gather societies that did not use pottery, it is difficult to provide direct evidence for the processing and consumption of food resources in areas where faunal remains are not preserved. Alternatively, organic residues in hearths can provide valuable information for reconstructing dietary trends in ancient societies. Here we report the results from chemical analyses of hearth residues from the Upward Sun River site in Central Alaska. Chemical analyses of hearth residues can provide insight into subsistence and diet in the hunter-gather society.